This would favour the second, endogenous, hypothesis of Traveller origins." More specifically, they found that Q188R was found in 100% of Traveller samples, and in 89% of other Irish samples, indicating that the Traveller group was typical of the larger Irish population.Since Shelta is a mixture of English and Irish grammar, the etymology is not straightforward.

An early example of this mobile element in the population, and how displacement of clans can lead to increased nomadism within aristocratic warrior societies, is that of the Clan Murtough O' Connors, displaced after the Norman invasion.

In 2011, researchers at the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin and the University of Edinburgh analyzed DNA samples from 40 Travellers.

Issues with mobile sections of the population came under loosely defined vagrancy laws, ultimately of English origin.

In 19–63 government of Ireland established a "Commission on Itinerancy" in response to calls to deal with the "itinerant problem".

Current scholarship is investigating the background of Gaelic Ireland before the English Tudor conquest.

The mobile nature and traditions of a Gaelic society based on pastoralism rather than land tenure before this event implies that Travellers represent descendants of the Gaelic social order marginalised during the change-over to an English landholding society.The Commission's 1963 report defined "itinerant" as "a person who had no fixed place of abode and habitually wandered from place to place, but excluding travelling show-people and travelling entertainers".From the 2006 Irish census it was determined that 20,975 dwell in urban areas and 1,460 were living in rural areas.It is used in the US, UK and Ireland Deeper documentation of Shelta and the Travellers dates to the 1830s, but knowledge of Irish Travellers has been seen from the 1100s, as well as the 1500s-1800s.Many decrees against begging in England were directed at Travellers, passed by King Edward VI around 1551.Irish Travellers are not an entirely homogeneous group, instead reflecting some of the variation also seen in the settled population.