What the couples have in common is a determination to live and love on their own terms.

Married: 1884 The couple: Frederick Douglass was a former slave who became the leader of the abolitionist movement.

Cameron, who married Johnson only months after Duryea’s suicide, stuck with Johnson for 12 years. There wasn’t anybody or anything that he feared.” Louisa and Louis George Gregory Married: 1912 The couple: Louis Gregory, the son of former South Carolina slaves, became an attorney at the U. Louisa Matthews was a white British woman also involved in the Baha’i faith.

Philippa became a celebrity and had a successful career as a pianist, but she had to assume two identities (one black, one white) depending on where her next concert was booked. Josephine Baker and Jean Lion Married: 1937 The couple: Baker was the iconic Jazz Age entertainer and civil rights activist who became a French Resistance agent.

Like her father before her, she became a conservative journalist, and was killed in a helicopter accident while serving as a Vietnam War correspondent. In the 1930s she was one of the most famous entertainers in the world and preferred to live in Paris, the city that embraced her.

Coleridge-Taylor became more involved in issues of racial equality and joined the Pan-African Movement, where he became close to W. A Jet Magazine article from 1955 reported that she lived in South Africa, where she was treated as white and conditionally supported apartheid.

Jack Johnson and Etta Terry Duryea Married: 1911 The couple: Jack Johnson, the “Galveston Giant,” was the first black world heavyweight boxing champion.

Their story: Soon after their marriage, George published a pamphlet in which he argued that “miscegenation” would cure racial problems in the United States.

He and Josephine – often remembered as an excessive stage mother – groomed their daughter Philippa to be a child prodigy in music as a way to prove that mixed-race children were strong offspring.

These eleven couples, from the United States and beyond, each found their own way of navigating the challenges that interracial couples have faced throughout recent history.

Some stories are heroic and others read as cautionary tales.

The couple sometimes worked together, with Walmisley providing piano accompaniment during performances.