Active X controls They can enhance your browsing experience by allowing animation or help with tasks such as installing security updates at Microsoft Update.If you do not trust the website and publisher, click ‘Don’t run’ when prompted.

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Chargeback The process of reversing a transaction and return of payment to a customer – typically when goods have not been received or are faulty.

Chat room An online discussion group where you can chat (by typing) with other users in real time.

419 scam A type of advance fee fraud, where you are asked to help transfer money out of another country.

It originated in West Africa, and 419 is the section of the Nigerian legal code that covers the crime. Back to the top Access control Controlling who has access to what information.

An attacker may exploit this vulnerability to take over a system. Byte A unit or measure of computer memory, usually consisting of eight binary digits (bits) processed together; usually enough to store a single letter or digit.

Back to the top Certificate An encrypted file containing user or server identification information, which is used to verify a website owner’s identity and to help establish a security-enhanced link.

Authentication The process for verifying that someone or something is who or what it claims to be.

In private and public computer networks (including the internet), authentication is generally done with passwords.

Adware A form of spyware that displays unwanted advertisements on a computer. Android An operating system used by a number of smartphone and tablet manufacturers.

The world’s most prolific operating system for smartphones.

Boot password A password that is needed before a computer starts up or any operating system can be loaded.