The nose shows evidence that it may have been broken.

Close examination reveals that scratches and dirt are in the nose.

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During the 1978 testing by STRUP, sample fibrils were removed from several blood stained areas of the shroud.

Numerous tests run by the team confirmed that real human blood is present on the shroud, even identifying it to as blood type AB.

The group formed when they noticed that a 3-D image could be realized from the image on the two dimensional cloth.

In October of 1978, the group assembled in Turin to begin a 120 hour continuous examination of the ancient relic.

Seventy five years would pass before renewed interest in the Shroud of Turn would surface once more.

It wasn’t until 1978 that an esteemed group of scientists, who called themselves the “Shroud of Turin Research Project (STRUP)”, began to examine the Shroud once again.The marks run horizontal and diagonal, and vary in intensity from light contusions to deep punctures.Medical examiners believe these marks are evidence that the scourging was caused by a whip or cord-like device.There is also evidence that the stain is not entirely composed of blood – a clear watery material is also present.The size and shape of the wound (4.4 cm by 1.1 cm) also match what would have been caused by a Roman “lancea”, and instrument used by foot soldiers of the Roman militia.An Italian photographer by the name of Secundo Pia took the first photographs of the Shroud in 1898.